### Chapter: Percentage

Important formulae and tricks and shortcuts of Percentages:

We are providing you Important Concepts and Tricks on Percentages which are usually asked in almost all competitive exams like IBPS, Govt. Exams and CAT and in quantitative aptitude of MNCs. Use these below given tricks to solve questions within minimum time. These tricks will be very helpful for your upcoming Competitive Exam.

We provide you a short and effective formulae and tricks to solve problems on Percentages. A list of important formulas for Percentage are as below:

1. Percent implies “for every hundred”.
% is read as percentage and x % is read as x per cent.

2. To calculate p % of y
(p/100) x y = (p x y)/100

p % of y = y % of p

3. To find what percentage of x is y: y/x × 100

4. To calculate percentage change in value
Percentage change = {change/(initial value)} x 100

5. Percentage point change = Difference of two percentage figures

6. Increase N by S % = N( 1+ S/100 )

7. Decrease N by S % = N (1 – S/100)

8. If the value of an item goes up/down by x%, the percentage reduction/increment to be now made to bring it back to the original point is 100x/ (100 + x) %.

9. If A is x% more /less than B, then B is 100x/(100 + x) % less/more than A.

10. If the price of an item goes up/down by x %, then the quantity consumed should be reduced by 100x/ (100 + x)% so that the total expenditure remains the same.

11. Successive Percentage Change
If there are successive percentage increases of a % and b%, the effective percentage increase is:
{(a + b + (ab/100)}%

12. Percentage – Ratio Equivalence:

N is Numerator
D is the Denominator

13. Product Stability Ratio:
A × B = P
If A is increased by a certain percentage, then B is required to be decreased by a certain percentage to keep the product P stable.

Expressing the percentage figures in ratios:

For solved problems on above formulas please visit below sections: